The patent process: A step-by-step timeline for inventors

1. Introduction to the Patent Process: Types of patents

Patents are legal rights granted to inventors for their unique inventions, providing them with the exclusive right to make, use, and sell their invention for a limited period of time. There are three main types of patents: utility patents, design patents, and plant patents.

A utility patent protects functional aspects of an invention, such as how it works or is used. It is the most common type of patent and covers a wide range of inventions.  Note that both the “provisional” patent application and the non-provisional patent application are type of utility patents. 

A design patent protects the ornamental or aesthetic design of a product. It focuses on the visual appearance rather than the functional aspects of the invention.  Think of the coke bottle as an example of a popular design patent. 

A plant patent is granted to those who have discovered or invented a new and distinct variety of plant that can be asexually reproduced.   These have to be man made plants.   

2. Determining Patentability: How to Assess if Your Invention Qualifies for a Patent

Before starting the patent filing process, it is important to determine if your invention is eligible for patent protection. The key criteria for patentability are:

Novelty: Your invention must be new and not publicly disclosed prior to filing the patent application.

Non-obviousness: Your invention should not be obvious to a person skilled in the relevant field based on existing knowledge.

Usefulness: Your invention must have a practical use and provide some form of benefit.

To assess the patentability of your invention, it is advisable to conduct a thorough patent search to uncover any prior art that may affect your ability to obtain a patent.

3. Conducting a Patent Search: Uncovering Prior Art and Evaluating Patentability

A patent search involves searching existing patents, patent databases, scientific literature, and other sources of information to uncover prior art – any similar inventions or publications that existed before your invention. This step helps determine the novelty and non-obviousness of your invention.

Conducting a patent search can be complex and time-consuming, requiring knowledge of patent classification systems and search strategies. It is recommended to seek professional assistance from a patent attorney or patent agent to ensure a comprehensive search.

Evaluating the patentability of your invention based on the search results is critical for making informed decisions regarding the patent filing process.  We wrote a post on how to do a patent search.

4. Preparing a Patent Application: Step-by-Step Guide to Drafting a Strong Submission

Preparing a patent application involves documenting your invention in a detailed and precise manner. The key components of a patent application include:

Title: A clear and concise description of the invention.

Abstract: A brief summary of the invention.

Background: A description of the problem or need addressed by the invention.

Description: A detailed explanation of the invention, including its components, functions, and possible variations.

Claims: The specific legal protection sought for the invention.

Drawings: Visual representations of the invention, if applicable.

It is essential to draft the patent application in compliance with the patent office’s guidelines to increase the chances of successfully obtaining a patent. Engaging a patent attorney with expertise in drafting patent applications is highly recommended.   

We have our patent template form with these sections available for free: 

5. Filing the Patent Application: What You Need to Know and Common Mistakes to Avoid

Once the patent application is prepared, it is time to file it with the appropriate patent office. The filing process includes completing the necessary forms, paying the required fees, and submitting the application.

Common mistakes to avoid during the filing process include:

Missed deadlines: Failing to meet the filing deadlines can result in the loss of patent rights.  You should file your patent before you go public or start selling your idea.  If you forget this step you have 12 months in the USA to get your patent filed starting from the date you first made the invention public or offered it for sale.  

Insufficient disclosure: Failing to disclose all necessary details about the invention can weaken the patent application.

Engaging a patent attorney or agent who is well-versed in the filing requirements can help navigate the complexities of the patent filing process and minimize the risk of making costly mistakes.  Contact us and we would love to help

6. Patent Examination Process: Understanding the Steps from Filing to Grant or Rejection

After filing the patent application, it undergoes a thorough examination process by the patent office. The examination process typically involves the following steps:

Formalities Examination: Reviewing the application for compliance with formal requirements.

Substantive Examination: Evaluating the patentability of the invention based on prior art and patent laws.

Office Actions: The patent examiner may issue office actions requesting amendments, clarifications, or rejections.

Amendment and Response: Responding to office actions by making amendments or providing arguments to overcome rejections.

Grant or Rejection: If the examination process is successful, the patent will be granted. Otherwise, it may be rejected, and further options, such as appeals, can be pursued.

Understanding the patent examination process allows inventors and businesses to prepare for potential challenges and respond effectively to the patent office’s requirements.

7. Responding to Patent Office Actions: Strategizing Your Approach for a Successful Outcome

When patent office actions are issued, it is crucial to carefully review them and develop a strategic approach to respond. Some key strategies include:

Understanding the objections/rejections: Analyzing the reasons provided by the patent examiner to address them effectively.

Amendments: Modifying the patent application to overcome objections or broaden the scope of protection.

Arguments and evidence: Presenting compelling arguments and supporting evidence to demonstrate the patentability of the invention.

Engaging a patent attorney: Seeking professional guidance from a patent attorney who can navigate the complexities of responding to office actions.

By strategizing their approach and leveraging professional expertise, inventors and businesses can increase the likelihood of a favorable outcome during the patent examination process.

8. Post-Examination Considerations: Appeals, Amendments, and Decision-Making Strategies

Following the examination process, there are several post-examination considerations, including:

Amendments: Making amendments to the patent application to address any remaining objections or enhance the scope of protection.

Appeals: If the patent application is rejected, the applicant can appeal the decision to a higher authority, such as a Patent Trial and Appeal Board.

Decision-making strategies: Assessing the examiner’s responses and determining whether further amendments or appeals are necessary.

Post-examination considerations require careful evaluation of the patent office’s feedback and decision-making strategies to maximize the chances of obtaining a granted patent.

9. Patent Grant and Maintenance: Maximizing the Value of Your Intellectual Property Portfolio

If the patent examination process is successful, the patent will be granted, and the inventor or business will receive a patent grant. This marks the official recognition of the invention’s uniqueness and the exclusive rights granted to the patent holder.  About 6 weeks after your patent is granted you will start to see it online and through search engines like Google Patents

Maximizing the value of your intellectual property portfolio involves ongoing maintenance, including:

Paying maintenance fees: Regularly paying the required maintenance fees to keep the patent in force.

Monitoring and enforcing your rights: Monitoring the market for potential infringements and taking legal action when necessary.

Considering licensing or selling: Exploring opportunities to license or sell your patented invention to generate income or collaborate with other entities.  See our post on how to make money from your patent.



Understanding the patent filing process is crucial for inventors and businesses seeking to protect their innovations. From determining patentability to filing the application, navigating the examination process, and maximizing the value of granted patents, each step plays a vital role in the successful acquisition and management of intellectual property rights. By engaging experienced patent professionals and staying informed about the process, individuals and companies can effectively protect their inventions and leverage them for commercial success.